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Athene, {I-Have-Come-From-Myself}.
Alternatemeanings: {Unsuckled-Unsuckling}, {Immortal-One}.
[to Whom the sixth day of December, day 340, is dedicated]

Geography/Culture: Greek: Athinai (Athens -- 38n x 23.38e). Homeric. Originally probably Minoan or Mycenean.
Linguistic Note: It has been suggested Her name is an inversion of the name Anath -- Ath-ana. See also Linguistic notes under Anne, for more on -ene, -ana syllables, suggesting very ancient origins. There have also been suggestions {add from "Black Athene".} Related English words: Athens, Athenaeum, perhaps: athlete, athletic. {Add the Greek orthography and modern day Greek form of name for Athens -- compare pronunciations}.
Description: Originally Great Goddess of the hearth, household, the clan or family bond and the total community of homes; Defender and Protectress of fortresses and cities; Embodiment of divine power and wisdom; Fertile Earth Mother; Promoter of agriculture; Culture bringer; She Who taught the arts of processing the olive for oil, horse-taming and harnessing, oxen-yoking; She Who inspired the invention, and taught the use of, the plough; Inspirer of the arts and crafts of music, goldsmithing, shipbuilding, fulling, shoe-making, and "the works of Athena" spinning and weaving; Goddess of peace, its pursuit and pursuits; Matron of sculptors, smiths and weavers.
In patriachal times She became: Virgin Goddess of counsel, the intellectual side of life, and war; Promoter of the development of legal ideas; Overseer of female arts and industries; Protectress and presiding Deity of states, cities and clans; Fosterer of youth; Instructor of gymnastics and athletics as training for war; Matron of those who are prudent and cautious in undertakings, especially in war.

  • Athena on the net. These are very slow loading.
    To Whom Sacred: olive -- tree, branch and fruit; willow; fig -- tree and fruit; spider (early images portray Her with a spider & a web); owl; cock; horse; oxen; steer; snake; helmet, Aegis (which some say originated as Anath's goat-skin apron hung with shorn penises), round shield; lance; palladia, Palladium; plough; spindle; loom; peplus; pot; northern solstice.
    Festival: Panathenaea, Apaturia, Ceremony of the Three Sacred Ploughs, Procharisteria, Schirophoria, Oschophoria, Chalkeia, Plynteria, Callynteria and Errephoria. (see Dictionary of Festivals).
    Male Associates: son (foster-son in patriachal times), Erechtheus (Ericthonius), Earth-Born-One, probably by Hephaistos, {but see Atthis, under Amphictyonis}; Corybantes, Crested-Dancers, by Apollo, Destroyer, Apple-man, or by Helios, The-sun).
    Source: WEMS, EncycBrit - Athena. EB1911/Athena, BGH, GM/RG, WWGRM, AVMGR.
    Admete, Untamed.

    Geography/Culture: Greek: Mycenae.
    Description: Goddess of transformations.
    To Whom Sacred: cuttlefish-like Hydra; crab; hind; wild-mare; cloud; the girdle of Hippolye. Graves suggests that Hercules Twelve Labors were a ritual of marriage tasks.
    Male Associate: consort Heracles.

    Source: Graves GMv1; GMv2 124,127,130. but there's a bit more
    Ageleie, Forager.
    Alternate meaning: Driver-off-of-Spoil.

    Geography/Culture: Greek.

    Agoraia, {She-Who-Gathers-the-Crowd}.

    Geography/Culture: Sparta.
    Linguistic Note: from Greek alpha-gamma-omikron-rho-alpha, (agora), an assembly of the People; the market place.
    Description: She Who presides over assemblies of people in the market place.

    Source: IGEL/7.


    Geography/Culture: Greek.
    Linguistic Note: from the alpha-pi-alpha-tau-omicron-upsilon-rho-iota-alpha (apatouria) festival.
    Description: Tutelary deity, with Her male associate, of the annual three day Apaturia, 'Festival of Common Relationships'.
    To Whom Sacred: oxen; lamb sacrifice (called meion, the lamb had to be of a certain weight); [human hair].
    Festival: Day 1: Doria, festival eve -- banquets held among the phratria (brotherhoods, those of kindred blood). Day 2: Anarrhyis, Day of Sacrifice -- oxen offered at public cost to the tutelary deities. Day 3: Cureotis, Day of the Young -- children born since the previous festival presented to the phratria, oaths sworn as to their legitimacy, lamb sacrifice, the children are admitted to the phratria by having their names added to the register. Boys still at school recite poems and recieve prizes. Young people {sex & age unspecified} cut their hair & offer it to the deities.
    Male Associate: Zeus Phratius.

    Source: EncycBrit - Apaturia; IGEL.
    Archegetis, Founder.

    Geography/Culture: Greek.
    Description: Founder of cities.

    Source: EncyBrit - Athena.
    Athantai-Aliai, ----.

    Geography/Culture: Greek.
    Description: The sea-goddess.

    Source: IGEL.
    Boulaia, She-Who-Counsels.

    Geography/Culture: Greek: Attic.
    Description: Goddess of state and family life.
    In reference to Athene's connection with wisdom, this surname also connects Her with the establishment of legal systems. Her Mother is Metis, Wisdom. The symbol of the snake also represents wisdom.

    Source: EB (28)
    Chalcioicos, She-of-the-Bronze-Chamber.
    Alternate meaning: She-of-the-Brazen-House.

    Geography/Culture: Greek: Sparta. Presumably She had a bronze temple there in which was celebrated Her (annual?) marriage to Hephaistos.
    Festival: Chalkeia, originally called Athenaia. One of Athene's most important festivals during which the weaving of the peplos for the Panathaea festival -- nine months later -- was begun.
    Male Associate: consort, Hephaistos.

    Source: AVMGR/29, 52-3.
    Chalinitis, ----.

    Geography/Culture: Greek.
    Description: Goddess of war-horses.

    Damasippos, {Mother-of-Horses}.

    Geography/Culture: Greek.
    Description: Goddess of war-horses.
    Astart, in Egypt bore the title Mistress -of-Horses. Athene in Greece is called Damasippos, Mother-of-Horses. Could Her association with horses show Her to have absorbed qualities of Astart, via Egypt?
    To Whom Sacred: horse.

    Source: Ency Brit: Athena.
    Hephaistia, {She-Who-Shines-by-Day}.

    Geography/Culture: Greek.

    Salpoigks, Trumpet.

    Geography/Culture: Greek.
    Description: Goddess of martial music and the Pyrric dance.

    Source: EB/Athena.

    { Musings by the compiler FW:
    Dates: marble from Aegina -- 5th cent. BC. see article in EB

    Apparently the classical-Homeric-onwards concept of Athena, grew out of a much older vision of a very great Goddess -- pre-patriachal, I think - Who seems to have incorporated, absorbed, assumed, the qualities and activities of many other Goddesses from round and about Greece.

    Why is She Untamed? What is the significance of Forager, Driver-off-of-spoil -- isn't this very similar to a title of Artemis' -- was She, Athene, also once Lady-of-the-beasts? or does the foraging and spoil refer to activities of war?

    She is Rustic-One and Dew-fall in Her vegetation Goddess aspect -- and the dew-fall, must relate Her to the moon, in this form.

    She is a founder of cities. It is as urban, city Goddess that She is Defender. She defends Her peoples boundary's, She Wards-Off the evil of agression, She keeps enemies at bay. Her title The-Warlike, as protectress of cities, suggests this role was the origin of Her conception as a war Goddess. Perhaps Anahita's connection with war, for which reason apparently the Greeks identified Athene with Her, was of the same sort, defensive. Athene does bear resemblances to the more violent Anath.

    What I can learn of Her connection with spiders, and weaving is to be found under Arachne.

    A connection with the sea may be indicated by Athens closeness to the sea. I believe the sea can be seen from the Acropolis.

    In Her myth (in which She is portrayed as mortal), Andromeda, qv, was transformed into the constellation Andromeda by Athene. If, as seems possible, Andromeda is said to be a Greek trivialised version of Astart, Athene's association with Andromeda -- why would She turn Andromeda into a constellation? -- strengthens the suggestion of a connection between Athene and Astart. The daughter of Andromeda is Gorgophone, translated as Gorgon-Death, though I would have expected Gorgon-Voiced. The reference to Gorgons seems again to connect Her with Athene, since the Gorgones are said to be an old form of Athene. }

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    worked on: October, May 1995; February 1992; August 1991; July, June 1990.