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Tanith, {Goddess-of-Heaven}.
[to Whom the nineteenth day of July, day 200, is dedicated]

Geography/Culture: Africa: Carthage. She has a temple at Carthage, (37.04n x 10.18e), [in modern Tunisia, originally Libya], which was founded by the Phoenicians.
Linguistic Note: the fopho rendering is probably incorrect. The i may very well be a fopho E, and the ultimate t and h both pronounced, as in fopho: T*NETH. Tanith's name appears first in Carthage. It is thought it might be the assimilation of a local Goddess. {Note: However, ta in Egyptian signifies female. If this is a correct interpretation of the first syllable, the -nith, (variant -nit), element of Her name may be linguistically related to Egyptian Neith (which has Nit as a variant). It is perhaps possible that Her name is related to Tanetu, one of Hat-Hor's titles as Goddess of light. The consonantal quality of the Egyptian script probably renders Tanetu, as t'ntw. That Hat-Hor is identified with Semitic Balat, a name which is probably a transliteration variant of Baalat, a title of Tanith, enhances the possibility, in my mind.}
Description: Winged Goddess of the heavens; Ruler of the sun, the moon, the stars and their calendrical revolutions; Heavenly Virgin; Great Lady; Mother; Matron of fertility; Protectress of cities; She Who condoned child sacrifice {ie perhaps She Who advocates the control of human populations to such numbers as allow a gracious and pleasant way of life for all}.
Her priestesses were astrologers.
To Whom Sacred: trees; dove; 'symbol (or sign) of Tanith' (truncated cone surmounted by a disk, sometimes with a horizontal line between disk and cone, the ends of which turn upward at right-angles); the crescent moon (lying on its back); the planet Venus; beytl {?}; open-hand emblem; child sacrifice (it has been suggested this phenomenon may have been a population control device).
Male Associate: Baal-Ammon (Baal-Hammon), ----.

Source: Encyc Brit v5 429-30; Graves GMv1/197; Monaghan BGH 282; Moscati WP 216; SFChron {see article in newscuttings}; Vermeule GRARE 9; Walker WEMS 972.
Caelestis, `Heavenly'.

Geography/Culture: Africa: Romans in Carthage. Having crushed the city of Carthage in 146 BCE, the Romans rebuilt and occupied it till 698 CE when it was finally destroyed by the Arabs).
Linguistic Note: {perhaps fopho should be CIL]STYS}. Since Juno, only bears the surname Caelestis in Her identification with Tanith {try and check that statement} perhaps Dea-Caelestis, the Roman alternate name for Tanith, was a translation of the name of Tanith.

Source: Encyc Brit v5 426-27.
Dido, `{Beloved-Wanderer}'.

Alternate meaning: `The-Fugitive', `Wanderer', `Beloved'.

Geography/Culture: Africa: Carthage. Phoenician.
Linguistic Note: it has been suggested the meaning of Her name refers to the wandering of the planet, and is a poetic name for, Venus. The sense of `fugitive' has also been suggested as descriptive of Elissa's relationship to Her homeland.
Description: Goddess of the planet Venus. Source: Encyc Brit v5 428; Moscati WP 137; Walker WEMS 235.
Elissa, `Goddess'.

Geography/Culture: Africa: Carthage. The traditional date for the founding of Carthage by the Phoenicians is 814-13 BC, but a Phoenician landing-stage may have existed earlier on the site.
Linguistic Note: the meaning is given as though -issa were a feminine suffix to El-, `lord'. But -t, or -at, is the more usual Phoenician feminine suffix. If the suggestion that She was associated with the planet Venus has truth then Her name may be Greek, see Helice Linguistic Note
Description: As a mortal Queen, after the asassination of Her consort She fled to Cyprus from where, accompanied by eighty sacred prostitutes and a priest of Astarte, She sailed to a Phoenician ship-layover site in Libya and founded Carthage, `new city'. Rather than marry the local native king of the region She threw Herself on a pyre and was immolated, afterwards deified. It has been suggested that this is the origin of the child sacrifice.
To Whom are sacred: byrsa (Phoenician: `acropolis', Greek: `ox-hide'); the concept of length from cutting the ox-hide into strips.
Male Associates: consort: Acharbas, priest of Melqart, assasinated by Her brother, Pumay (Pygmalion), King of Tyre. Source: Encyc Brit v5 428; IGEL 250; Moscati WP 125, 150-51; Walker WEMS 235. {add a little more from hard copy}.
Galatea, `Milk-White'.

Geography/Culture: Greek: She lived in the waters of Sicily {this also sounds as if there could be a Phoenician connection, see Two below}.
Male Associates: lover Acis who was killed by Polyphemus.

Galatea, Milky-White.

Geography/Culture: Greek: But perhaps Greek form of a Phoenician Goddess. A great temple to Aphrodite exitsted in Paphos, on the west side of the island.
To Whom Sacred: ivory; aconic image.
Male Associate: lover Pygmalion, (Greek form of Phoenician Pumay), `Shaggy-Fist', king of Cyprus.

worked on: June, July 1990; July 1991; February 1992; May, June 1995
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