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Erinyes, Spirits-of-Anger-and-Revenge
Alternate meanings: Strong-Ones, Hungry-Ones.
[to Whom the tenth day of February, day 040, is dedicated]

Geography/Culture: Pre-Hellenic Greek. Some say they were first venerated in Arcadia. Later their worship spread throughout Greece.
Linguistic Note: The Romans translated this as Furiae, 'the furious'.
Description: Winged triple Crone Goddess of the underworld, fate and [creative anger]; Those Who are older than any God; the Black Goddesses; Implacable defenders of the rights of women; Curses from one's Mother for having wronged Her; Harbingers of Divine Vengeance and sudden destruction; Swift Bitches; the Dogs of Hades; Pursuers of those who flout blood kinship and the deference due to it; Those Who represent supernatural intervention and justice for crimes that are not dealt with by humanity; Those Who sit on the threshold of the guilty one's house and cannot be evaded; Children of Eternal night; Daughters of the Earth and the Shadow; Those Who pursue Their vengeance even to the Underworld tormenting the guilty in Tartarus.
During patriachal times They were especially concerned to punish offenses against society such as perjury, violation of the rites of hostpitality and above all the murder of relations. People who appear to have been sent to be curses to others are called Erinyes.
To Whom Sacred: narcissus flower (perhaps meaning the three-lobed blue iris, worn as chaplets when placating Them); bat; snake (their hair sometimes "bristles with serpents"); horse; dog; (offerings of black-sheep, white-doves, water sweetened with honey); dolphin; blood; the colour black; brass-studded whips; torches; scourges; sickles.
Iconography:They have dogs heads, bats wings, and serpents for hair and ascend from the underworld to pursue the wicked. Experienced by guilt-ridden conscience as black-robed Gorgons (qv Gorgones) with blood-dripping eyes, and claw-like nails. Compiler's Note: Images of single Erinyes, have snakes wrapped around their arms similarly to the Cretan snake Goddess. The Eumenides, when imaged, are shown holding a snake just behind the head, much as seen in other representations of the Cretan snake Goddess. Since it is believed Cretan society was matriachal, it seems possible the Cretan snake God dess was the predecessor of the singular Erinys. Though perhaps known by some more euphemistic name!
Their Triple form was first mentioned by Euripedes.
Their individual names from later writers are as follows:
Alecto, Unrestful. Megaera, Envy. Tisiphone, Avenger.

Source: GEL; Guirand GM 128, 129 (& image); Monaghan BGH 96-7; Encyc Brit v9 745a; Graves GMv1 125; ibid GMv2 73, 82, index; IGEL 314; MAW 243; Kravitz WWGRM 91-2, 193.

Alecto, Unrestful.

Geography/Culture: Pre-Hellenic Greek. Description: Snakes in Her hair and a whip in Her hand.
See also Goddess Anthology under Alec-to.
Dirae, DYRI, Ill-boding-ones.

Alternate meanings: Curses, Fearful-Ones.

Geography/Culture: Roman.
Linguistic Note: Derived English word: dire.
Description: They were known in heaven as the Dirae, and in hell as the Furiae.

Source: COED/389.

Erinys, Spirit-of-Anger-and-Revenge.

Alternate meanings: Avenger, The-Angry.

Geography/Culture: Greek.
Linguistic Note: Epsilon-rho-iota-nu-upsilon-sigma, 'the Fury'.
Description: Goddess of retribution and vengeance; She Who punishes trespassers against matriachal law; Scolding Mother; She Who is Consciouness of guilt.

Source: IGEL 314; Walker WEMS 282.

Erinys, =RYNÜS, The-Angry.

Geography/Culture:Greek: Arcadia: Thelpusa.
Description: Mare Goddess of earth and the underworld; She Who rages in grief over the loss of Her Daughter.
To Whom Sacred: black-mare; horse (perhaps as corn-spirit, perhaps as sacred to chthonic deities); horse-head mask (worn by Her priest when he performed the ceremony of beating the Infernal Spirits with rods).
Male Associates: son, the horse Arion , ---, by rapist Poseidon.

Source: EBv7/980-2; Graves GMv1/74, 129, 167, 237; Graves GMv2/30; Guirand GM 105.

Lousia, The-Bather.
Geography/Culture: Greek: Arcadia, Thelpusa.

Source: EBv7/980-2.

Eumenides, Kindly-Ones.

Alternate meanings: Good-Ones, Well-Disposed-Ones, Benevolent-Ones, possibly also Solemn-Ones.

Geography/Culture: Greek. They have a sacred cave on the Athenian Acropolis. Under the name Eumenides, the Erinyes were honored and had a temple in Athens near the Areopagus.
Description: Originally triple Goddess of the underworld and human reproduction; Providers of edible plants; Triple Goddess of steadfast justice.
To Whom Sacred: kerm-oak groves; kerm--berries (ie: the cochineal insects from which the Greeks extracted scarlet dye); the colour scarlet (and/or purple); torch.
Festival: Their rituals were held in darkness.

Source: Monaghan BGH/101; Graves GMv1/122.

Worked on file: July 10, 17,1990; July 1, August 6, 1991; April 17, August 21, 1993; May 1995.
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